Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and oxidative effects of preserved and preservative-free brimonidine in a corneal epithelial cell line
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CitationKucukoduk A, Durmus IM, Aksoy M, Karakurt S. Cytotoxic, Apoptotic, and Oxidative Effects of Preserved and Preservative-Free Brimonidine in a Corneal Epithelial Cell Line. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2022 Oct;38(8):576-583.
Purpose: This study aims to compare the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and oxidative effects of preserved and preservative-free forms of brimonidine 0.15% on the human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) line. Methods: Time-dependent cytotoxicity studies were performed with the Alamar Blue method. For apoptotic studies, PE Annexin V and 7-amino-actinomycin (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry were performed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3, -9, -12, and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot method, respectively. Results: Cell viability was 76.4% with the preserved solution and 36.05% with the preservative-free solution at the fifth minute. No significant difference was observed with either solution at the 15-min mark, whereas cell viability did not change significantly after 1 h. In the apoptosis evaluation, it was observed that the preservative-free solution increased the early apoptotic activity to a greater degree (P < 0.05). Preservative-free solution also induced gene expression of proapoptotic Bax, caspase-9 and -12, and protein expression of Bax while reducing the protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 (P < 0.0001). Preserved solution induced only the gene expression of caspase-12, and reduced the protein expression of Bcl-2 (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels of either solution compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the preserved solution is less cytotoxic to the HCEC line in the early period, has less early apoptotic activity, and does not significantly increase ROS levels.